Forests are the predominant terrestrial ecosystem of Earth.



A forest is made up of many layers.

The main layers of all forest types are

- the forest floor,
- the understory,
- and the canopy.


Each layer has a different set of plants and animals, depending upon the availability of sunlight, moisture, and food.






Forest floor contains decomposing leaves and dead trees. Decay on the forest floor forms new soil and provides nutrients to the plants. This can be anything from leaves, cones, needles, twigs, bark, seeds/nuts, logs.

The forest floor supports ferns, grasses, mushroom, and tree seedlings.

Forest floor




Understory is made up of bushes, shrubs, and young trees that are adapted to living in the shade of the canopy.

Understory ( American English ), or understorey ( Commonwealth English ), also known as underbrush or undergrowth , comprises plant life growing beneath the forest canopy without penetrating it to any great extent, but above the forest floor.

The understory typically consists of trees stunted through lack of light, other small trees with low light requirements, saplings, shrubs, vines and undergrowth.

In an ecosystem , the ground cover forms the layer of vegetation below the shrub lay. The ground includes herbaceous plants, bryophytes and blooms of trees and shrubs. The most widespread ground covers are grasses of various types.



The understory experiences greater humidity than the canopy, and the shaded ground does not vary in temperature as much as open ground.This causes a proliferation of ferns, mosses, and fungi and encourages nutrient recycling, which provides favorable habitats for many animals and plants.




Canopy is formed by the mass of intertwined branches, twigs, and leaves of mature trees. The crowns of the dominant trees receive most of the sunlight. The canopy forms a shady, protective "umbrella" over the rest of the forest.

However, in botany and in many countries, a different classification of forest vegetation is often used: tree, shrub, herb, and moss layers.









The advantage of birds is the ability to care for the health of tree stands.







Forest - societal significance :


Serving as recreational areas.



Acting as a carbon sink (converting carbon dioxide into oxygen and biomass).

Therefore, they are necessary to mitigate climate change.

Purifying water.
Mitigating natural hazards such as floods.
Serving as a genetic reserve.
Serving as a source of lumber.


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